Channelling Official Development Assistance

The term Channelling Agency is used to describe the first entity or organisation to receive the funds, whether the project or programme is then carried out by this organisation or another partner agency.

Development assistance can be channelled through governmental agencies, NGOs, universities, civil society, companies, etc. or through international institutions known as Multilateral Development Organisations (OMUDES). If channelled through the first type of agency the assistance is known as bilateral and if linked to OMUDES it becomes Multilateral or Multi-Bilateral.

Graph showing how ODA was channelled in 2013: Multilateral 55%, Direct Bilateral 42%, Bilaterial vía OMUDES 3%In 2013, the same percentage of bilateral assistance (bilateral plus multi-bilateral) was channelled as multilateral. On the other hand, the volume of assistance channelled through OMUDES amounted to 56% (a combination of multilateral and multi-bilateral), fulfilling the commitment made in this respect in the 4th Master Plan.

Spain's bilateral Official Development Assistance (ODA) that is not channelled through OMUDES is mainly managed by public institutions, NGOs and civil society. Among public-sector institutions, over two thirds of funds are channelled through public agencies in Spain and the rest through public institutions in developing partner countries. As for NGOs, the majority of assistance is channelled through Spanish non-governmental organisations for development (Development NGOs). The remaining bilateral ODA, 10% in 2013, is accounted for by state universities, public-private partnerships and non-profit organisations.

OMUDES are international institutions which receive contributions from donor countries in order to carry out development programmes. These contributions can be made to the general budget, as multilateral assistance, or to specific funds or programmes, which would be classified as multi-bilateral.

The United Nations serves as a fundamental point of reference within development cooperation at an international level. Spanish Cooperation (CE), with the key aim of enhancing concentration, effectiveness, joint responsibility and participation, as set out in the 4th Master Plan, is establishing a series of Strategic Association Framework Agreements (MAE) with various multilateral organisations.

Graph showing how bilateral assistance was channelled in 2013: Public Sector 54%, Development NGOS and civil society 34%, Partnerships and networks 1%, Other organizations 11%The first MAEs, which are currently being drafted, reflect Spanish Cooperation's commitment to UN agencies by prioritising work with the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and UN-Women. Spanish Cooperation also prioritises agencies and programmes such as the World Food Programme, the OCHA, the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and the World Health Organization (WHO/PAHO).  In addition, we also work with organisations such as the International Labour Organization (ILO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) or the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), among others.

For multilateral ODA, since it takes the form of contributions to the general budgets of institutions or organisations, we cannot specify the exact sectors or countries that receive this aid. It is a general donation to the organisation and its development plans. As a member of the European Union, Spain makes donations to the  European Development Fund (EDF) and to the European Commission for its Development Assistance programme. It also makes donations to the UN general budget and to other OMUDES.

Graph showing the distribution of ODA among the various OMUDES: International NGO 6,9%, United Nations 73,7%, Eruropean Union 0,01%, International Monetary Fund 1%, Regional development banks 0,01%, Other Multilateral Organizations 19,3%.